Contribution of the Axon Initial Segment to Action Potentials Recorded Extracellularly

by Maria Teleńczuk, Romain Brette, Alain Destexhe, Bartosz Teleńczuk
Abstract:
Action potentials (APs) are electric phenomena that are recorded both intracellularly and extracellularly. APs are usually initiated in the short segment of the axon called the axon initial segment (AIS). It was recently proposed that at the onset of an AP the soma and the AIS form a dipole. We study the extracellular signature [the extracellular AP (EAP)] generated by such a dipole. First, we demonstrate the formation of the dipole and its extracellular signature in detailed morphological models of a reconstructed pyramidal neuron. Then, we study the EAP waveform and its spatial dependence in models with axonal AP initiation and contrast it with the EAP obtained in models with somatic AP initiation. We show that in the models with axonal AP initiation the dipole forms between somatodendritic compartments and the AIS, and not between soma and dendrites as in the classical models. The soma–dendrites dipole is present only in models with somatic AP initiation. Our study has consequences for interpreting extracellular recordings of single-neuron activity and determining electrophysiological neuron types, but also for better understanding the origins of the high-frequency macroscopic extracellular potentials recorded in the brain.
Reference:
Maria Teleńczuk, Romain Brette, Alain Destexhe, Bartosz Teleńczuk, 2018. Contribution of the Axon Initial Segment to Action Potentials Recorded Extracellularly, eNeuro, volume 5.
Bibtex Entry:
@article{Telenczuk2018,
	title = {Contribution of the {Axon} {Initial} {Segment} to {Action} {Potentials} {Recorded} {Extracellularly}},
	volume = {5},
	issn = {2373-2822},
	url = {https://www.eneuro.org/content/eneuro/5/3/ENEURO.0068-18.2018.full-text.pdf},
	doi = {10.1523/ENEURO.0068-18.2018},
	abstract = {Action potentials (APs) are electric phenomena that are recorded both intracellularly and extracellularly. APs are usually initiated in the short segment of the axon called the axon initial segment (AIS). It was recently proposed that at the onset of an AP the soma and the AIS form a dipole. We study the extracellular signature [the extracellular AP (EAP)] generated by such a dipole. First, we demonstrate the formation of the dipole and its extracellular signature in detailed morphological models of a reconstructed pyramidal neuron. Then, we study the EAP waveform and its spatial dependence in models with axonal AP initiation and contrast it with the EAP obtained in models with somatic AP initiation. We show that in the models with axonal AP initiation the dipole forms between somatodendritic compartments and the AIS, and not between soma and dendrites as in the classical models. The soma–dendrites dipole is present only in models with somatic AP initiation. Our study has consequences for interpreting extracellular recordings of single-neuron activity and determining electrophysiological neuron types, but also for better understanding the origins of the high-frequency macroscopic extracellular potentials recorded in the brain.},
	number = {3},
	journal = {eNeuro},
	author = {Teleńczuk, Maria and Brette, Romain and Destexhe, Alain and Teleńczuk, Bartosz},
	month = may,
	year = {2018},
	pmid = {29876522}
}